According to GHG Protocol, which approach (scope 1, 2, or 3) does the Cool Farm Tool take?

The Cool Farm Tool functions as a greenhouse gas (GHG) calculator designed specifically for the farm level, focusing on emissions arising from agricultural production of specific products, whether they are crops or livestock. 

The GHG Protocol classifies emissions into three distinct scopes: 

  • Scope 1: This includes direct emissions originating on your farm, such as the combustion of diesel, N2O emissions from fields, and CH4 emissions from cattle. 
  • Scope 2: Comprising indirect emissions associated with purchased energy or electricity, Scope 2 emissions occur elsewhere but result from the energy used on the farm. 
  • Scope 3: Encompassing other indirect emissions, Scope 3 involves emissions from external companies that provide products or services for your farm operations. 


The Cool Farm Tool primarily adopts the scope 3 approach for various aspects, including fertilizers, pesticides, and transportation of goods to and from the farm. We generally recommend a cradle-to-farm-gate approach. However, there are specific areas that are either partially covered, such as seed production (limited to potatoes), or not covered at all, such as the production of machinery or infrastructure. These exclusions are deliberate to simplify the use of the Cool Farm Tool and because emissions from these areas typically have a minor impact on the overall result. However, we acknowledge that in some scenarios, these omissions can represent significant emissions, and we are actively working to address these gaps as part of our GHG protocol consistency project. For more information on our ongoing efforts, please visit this link. 

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